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Moodle Hands on Training on 13th Dec 2019
by The Librarian - Friday, 13 December 2019, 8:19 AM

Dear all,

Moodle Hands on training will be conducted in the computer lab on 13th December 2019 at 4 pm.  Shortlisted teachers may attend the program.

Dr. Kanchi

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Moodle Workshop on 09 Jan 2019
by The Librarian - Monday, 9 December 2019, 8:57 AM
Dear All, Moodle Workshop will be held in the new conference hall on 09 Jan 2019 at 10:00am. Please attend.
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Enroll yourself
by The Librarian - Friday, 6 December 2019, 9:25 AM

1. Click on 'create new account' by clicking on the login link.

 2. Fill the correct information.

 Important note: 

The students must enter their member barcode as the Username (i.e. college registration number which we have provided on I-card as well as on the challan fee receipts).


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(191 words)

Available courses

DEF-101 –WAR-I

Course Contents

1) War

i) Introduction 

ii) Meaning 

iii) Definitions 

iv) Concept

2) Causes,functions and Effects of War

i) Causes of war –(Political, Economical, Culture & Thoughts, Psychological , Military)

ii) Functions of War

iii) Effects of War

3) Evolution of War Techniques

i) Introduction 

ii) Elements of War 

iii) Sources of War 

iv) Development of War Techniques.

4) Principles of War

i) Selection & Maintenance of the Aim 

ii) Offensive Action 

iii) Concentration

iv) Economy of Force

v) Co-operation

vi) Security

vii) Surprise Action

viii) Mobility

ix) Moral

x) Administration

5) Determinants of affecting on War

i) Geographical

ii) Economical

iii) Science and Technology 

iv) Natural Resources

References : 

1. Patra S.R., Arms Appraisal – the Studies of Modern War, Jyotsna Publication ,Chennai. 

2. Singh Lallanji, Strategic Addhyayan, Prakash Book, Barely. 

3. Bala Manhohan, Raksha Vigyan, Prabhat Publication, New Delhi. 

4. Shrivastiva J.M. Yuddha Aur Shanti ki Samkalin Samasyaen, Chandrapraksha, Hapur. 

5. Pande, Rashtriya Suraksha Aiavam Antarrashtriya Sambandh, Prakash Book Depo, Barely. 

6. Chaudhari A.P. Yuddavidyan : Sanrakshan va Samirkshahtra D `iamond Publication, Pune ,2008. 

7. Raipurkar Vashant, Antrastriya Samndh, 7th Edition, Mangesh Prakashan, Nagpur, 2006. 

8. Pranjape B.T. Yudha Jigyasa, Spartan Publication, 1971.

Defence and Strategic Studies has been introduced the new course for FYBA Autonomous Course. 

DEF 111 India's Internal Security 

This course is divided in to four units. Enrolled students has understood the basic concepts regarding India's Security pattern. 

Basically in the first unit students must understand the security meaning, scope and the importance of security. What is the structure of India's National Security? and What is the geopolitics about India's National Security?


Defence and Strategic Studies post graduate course is the launching the new syllabus in during Autonomous. 

Defence Economics is main part in Strategic Studies. 

Western countries launch already experimental with Defence economic branch before First world war. 

Defence economics theories are bases on some economic theories. 

1) Adam Smith's Welfare theory

2) Say's Law of Market

3) Alfred Marshal's Theory 


B. A. Semester- I

ECO -112 - Economy of Maharashtra

(With effect from June 2019)


1. To study the main characteristics of economy in Maharashtra.

2. To understand the role of Agriculture in economy of Maharashtra.


1. Students will understand the various challenges of Economy in Maharashtra.

2. Students will study the Problems of economy in Maharashtra.

Unit Topic Sub-Topic Lectures

I Agriculture in


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Role of agriculture in economy of Maharashtra

2.3 Agriculture Productivity: Meaning, Definition, causes

and Remedies of Low Productivity

3.4 Green revolution: Meaning, Definition, factor affecting

to Green revolution.



Economic and


Features of


2.1 General Characteristics of Economy of Maharashtra

2.2 Population: Size and growth rates, Sex ratio, Literacy,

Density of Population, Causes of growth of Population

2.3 Unemployment: Meaning, Definition, causes and


2.4 Poverty: Meaning, Definition, causes and remedies


III Industry in


3.1 Industry: Definition, Structure and importance of


3.2 Special economic zone (SEZ): Meaning, Definition and

effects of SEZ.

3.3 Argo-based and small scale industries: Meaning,

problems and Remedies.

3.4 New Industrial Policy of Maharashtra -2013.




Movement in


4.1 Co-operative Movement & its origin

i Co-operation: Definition, Scope and Principles of cooperation.


ii Progress of co-operative movement in Maharashtra

4.2 Co-operative Act: Act of 1904, Act of 1912,

4.3 Maharashtra State New Co-operative Act 2013.

4.4 Co-operative Credit in Maharashtra

i Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operative societies:

Functions and Merits.

ii District Co-operative Bank: Function and Merits.

iii State Co-operative Bank: Function and Merits.


१. आर. एस. सो ळुंके, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था ,कैलाश प्रकाशन, औरंगाबाद, १९९९

२. र. पु. कुरुलकर, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था , वि द्या प्रकाशन, ना गपूर, २००६

३. बी. डी. इंगळे, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था , अरुणा प्रकाशन, लातूर, २००९

४. मंगला जंगले, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था , प्रशां त प्रकाशन, जळगाव, २००८

५. रा जश्री जाधव, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था , अरुणा प्रकाशन, लातूर, २००१

६. माधव बि रा जदार, महारा ष्ट्राची अर्थव्यवस्था ,वि द्या प्रकाशन, औरंगाबाद, २०१२

७. महारा ष्ट्राची आर्थिक पाहणी, अर्थ व सां ख्यकी संचना लय, नि योजन वि भाग महारा ष्ट्र शा सन, मुंबई,२०११-१२

८. Population Census of Maharashtra-2011.

९. Maharashtra Development Report 2007- Planning Commission, Govt. of India, New


What is VIP?

The Vocabulary Improvement Programme 2019 (VIP-2019) is being organized by the Department of English to provide students with an opportunity to study and test the general vocabulary useful for a college going student.

VIP will provide the list of 500 words. Students are expected to study those 500 words and appear for the online examination. The online vocabulary test will consist of 50 objective questions.

Download the word list:

Why Participate?

A good vocabulary improves the necessary language skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing. Having adequate vocabulary helps us to express clearly and fluently. Using the right words in their right context makes one an effective communicator. The present initiative: VIP-2019, intends to sensitise and encourage the students to enhance their word power and by extension their communicative strength.


· VIP-2019 is open for all the undergraduate (UG) students of M. J. College.

· The first top 10 scorers will be given prizes.

· All the participants will be sent Certificate of Participation in PDF format to their mails.

· NO FEES for VIP-2019

The students should register their names as given below: (Last Date 10th January 2020)

· Online Registration: Click to register:

· Offline Registration: At Department of English (Time: 10 am to 12:30 pm)

Date of Online Examination: 14th January, 2020 Time: 10:30-11:30 am

Venue: Computer Lab, Swami Vivekanand Bhavan Prize Distribution: 18th January, 2020

FYBA OENG-122-Optional English-IV (Sem-II)

MA (English)Part-I



ENG-201: An Introduction to Linguistics-II

(w.e.f. Academic Year:2019-20)




1. To acquaint the students with the nature of human language.

2. To introduce the students to the developments in the field of linguistics.

3. To familiarize the students with the recent trends in linguistics.

4. To make the students aware of the relation of language to brain, society, machine and law.

5. To develop amongst the students the stylistic competence for analyzing literary texts.



External Evaluation: 60 Marks

Internal Evaluation: 40 Marks

Unit 1: Corpus Linguistics:                            (15hrs)

4.1. Corpus linguistics: Definition and Nature

4.2. Characteristics of Corpus linguistics

4.3. Analytical Tools: Corpusbench, LEXA, Microconcord, TACT and Wordcruncher

4.4. Applications of Corpus linguistics: Lexicography, grammar, frequency counts of words, contexts, dialect and register patterns, educational materials and classroom activities.

Unit-2: Computational Linguistics:                       (15hrs)

5.1. Computational Linguistics: Definition and Nature

5.2. Artificial Intelligence: Parsers, understanders systems and Discourse Representation Theory (DRT)

5.3. Natural Language Processing (NLP): Morphology, Spoken language, Syntax and Semantics of  NLP/Programming language (PL); Computer Programs: ELIZA (Joseph Weizenbaum, 1966) and  SHRDLU(Terry Winograd 1971)

5.4. Machine Translation (MT)-Document retrieval, information extraction

5.5. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL): History, definition, features, advantages and disadvantages

Unit 3: Forensic Linguistics:                    (15hrs)

6.1. Forensic Linguistics: Definition and Nature

6.2. Legal language and structure of legal genres

6.3. Collection and testing of evidence, examination and cross-examinaation in the courtroom  and evidence in the court

6.4. Veracity in language, forensic text types and forensic transcription

6.5. The role of forensic linguist, forensic phonetician, document examiner and investigation of Authorship


Unit 4: Stylistics:                                       (15hrs)

7.1. Stylistics: Definition, nature and scope

7.2. Stylistic Principles: foregrounding, deviation (graphical, thematic, linguistic),  Parallelism,(phonological, morphological, grammatical) cohesion, coherence

7.3. Methods in stylistic analysis (stylistic studies)





Corpus Linguistics:

1.McEnery, Tony and Andrew Wilson Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001.

2. McEnery, Tony and Andrew Hardie Corpus Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.


Computational Linguistics:

  1. Bala, Usha Computer-Assisted Language Learning Materials for Indian Students, Ph. D.Thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, May, 2013.
  1. Grishman, Ralph Computational Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press, 1986.

       iii. Patrick, John and David Christopher Computational                        Linguistics. New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers, 2011.

  1. Pranita, Gopal Computer-Assisted Language Learning. New Delhi: Pragun Publication, 2012.
  2. Ruslan, Mitkov The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.


Forensic Linguistics:

i.  Coulthard Malcolm and Alison Johnson An Introduction to Forensic Linguistics.: Language in Evidence. London: Routledge, 2008.

ii.  Gibbs, John and V. Prakasam (eds.) Language in the Law. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2004.

iii. Olsson, John Forensic Linguistics: An Introduction to Language, Crime and Law. London: Continuum International Publishing, 2008.

v. Shuy, Roger, W. Linguistics in the Courtroom: A Practical Guide. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.


i.Bradford, Richard Stylistics. London: Routledge, 1997.

ii. Jeffries, Lesley and Dan McIntyre Stylistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

iii. Leech, G. N. and M. Short Style in Fiction: A Linguisitc Introduction to English Fictional Prose. Essex: Longman Group Ltd., 1981.

iv. Misra, Parthsarathi An Introduction to Stylistics: Theory and Practice. London: Orient Blackswan 2009.

This course takes you through representative poems of Indian, British and American literary traditions.


Introduction to


A. Definitions of Atmosphere

B. Meaning and Definition of Climate & Weather

C.  Composition of Atmosphere

i.    Gases,

ii.   Water Vapor iii.  Dust Particles)

D. Structure of Atmosphere

I.  On the basis of Chemical Composition:

i. Homosphere ii. Hetrosphere

II  On the basis of physical properties:

i. Troposphere       

ii. Stratosphere

iii. Thermosphere

iv. Mesosphere      a. Ionosphere

b. Exosphere



& Temperature

A. Meaning & Definition of Insolation, Solar

Constant and Aledo of the Earth

B. Distribution of Isolation- Factors

Affecting  the Distribution of Insolation

C.  Distribution of Temperature.

  I.   Vertical Distribution

II.  Horizontal Distribution




& Winds

A. Atmospheric Pressure

i.  Formation of Pressure Belts

ii. Shifting of Pressure Belts and their


B. Winds

I.   Factors Affecting on Winds

a.  Pressure Gradient

b.  Coriolis Force

c.  Frictional Force

        II. Classification of Winds

a.  Planetary Winds- Definition &Types

b.  Periodical Winds: land & Sea Breezes)

c.   Monsoon Winds – Concept & Types




&Applications of Climatology

A. Definition & Types of Humidity

  i. Absolute 

 ii. Specific and

iii. Relative Humidity


B.  Forms of Condensation:

Fog, Dew, Frost ,Clouds& Precipitation

C. Forms of Precipitation:

(Rain, Drizzle, Snow, Sleet.)

D. Types of Rainfall

i.    Convectional

ii.   Orographic / Relief

iii.  Cyclonic  or Frontal

E. Applications of Climatology in the field of –

Agriculture , Settlement, Health, Trade &  Transport

You can also format text directly by using the other controls on the Home tab. Most controls offer a choice of using the look from the current theme or using a format that you specify directly. To change the overall look of your document, choose new Theme elements on the Page Layout tab. To change the looks available in the Quick Style gallery, use the Change Current Quick Style Set command.

Both the Themes gallery and the Quick Styles gallery provide reset commands so that you can always restore the look of your document to the original contained in your current template. On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks. When you create pictures, charts, or diagrams, they also coordinate with your current document look.

You can easily change the formatting of selected text in the document text by choosing a look for the selected text from the Quick Styles gallery on the Home tab. You can also format text directly by using the other controls on the Home tab. Most controls offer a choice of using the look from the current theme or using a format that you specify directly. To change the overall look of your document, choose new Theme elements on the Page Layout tab.

To change the looks available in the Quick Style gallery, use the Change Current Quick Style Set command. Both the Themes gallery and the Quick Styles gallery provide reset commands so that you can always restore the look of your document to the original contained in your current template. On the Insert tab, the galleries include items that are designed to coordinate with the overall look of your document. You can use these galleries to insert tables, headers, footers, lists, cover pages, and other document building blocks.






F. Y. B. A. Semester - II

PHI.122: Introduction to Logic

(With effect from June, 2019)



●       To study the introductory knowledge of Logic

●       To study Traditional and Modern concepts in Logic


●       To understand the nature, scope and theories behind Logic

●       To understand Logical Reasoning and its application




Sub Topic



Introdution to logic

a) Definition of Logic

b) Nature and Scope of Knowledge

c) Formal and Normative Nature of Logic



Logic and Reasoning

a)   Argument and Argument Forms

a)            Proposition and propositional Forms

c) Kinds of Inferences—Deductive and Inductive



Truth and Validity

a)           Truth Functional Connectives

b)           Truth Tables – Conjunction,              Disjunction, Negation,   Implication,Equivalence

c)           Decision Procedure—Tautology, Contradiction and Contingent



Introduction to Traditional Proposition

a)           Four Fold Scheme of categorical proposition ( A, E, I, O) and Venn Diagram

b)           Inference By Proposition and Opposition

c)           Square of Opposition



Reference Books

1.   D. Y. Deshpande; Tattvajnanacya Mulabhuta Samasya, Continental Prakashan, Pune (1990)

2.   Dixit Shreenivas Hari, Tattvajnanatila samasya, Phadke Pkashan, Kolhapur (1996)

3.   Copi I. M. Introduction to Logic Macmillan Company New York (Tenth Edition).

4.   Copi I. M. Symbolic Logic Macmillan Company New York 6th Edition (Relevant Chapter)

5.   तर्कविद्या आणि ,प्रा. डॉ.बी.आर.जोशी प्रा.एस.व्ही.कुलकर्णी प्रा..आर.मठवाले.


F.Y.B.A. Semester – II

PHI.121:  Ethics

(With effect from June 2019)



●               To study the introductory knowledge of Ethics

●               To study Indian and western concepts in Ethics


●               To understand the nature, scope and theories behind Ethics

●               To understand the applied aspects of Ethics in social and environmental context





Sub Topics



Introduction to Ethics

a)    Definition, Nature, Scope, Problems and its Relation with other Subjects.

b)   All Western Ethical Concepts—Truth, Good, Bad, Right , Wrong, Obligation, Duty

c)    All Indian Ethical Concepts—Dharma, Artha,Kama,Moksha.



Ethical Theories

a)    Hedonism

b)   Utilities

c)    Duty for Duty’s Sake



Applied Ethics

a)      Definition and Scope

a)      Human Being and Society

b)      Human Being and Environment



Medical Ethics

a) Euthanasia

b) Doctor Patient Relationship

c) Drug addiction






PHI G-111 Western Ethics

1) Ethics: Introductory
a) Nature, scope and problems of ethics
b) Nature of morality, factors in morality, moral rules (code)
c) Descriptive ethics, normative ethics and meta-ethics
d) Basic ethical concepts, right, duty and good

2) Hedonism :-
a) Ethical and psychological
b) Egoistic and universal
c) Bentham’s and Mill’s Utilitarianism
d) Evaluation of utilitarian theory

3) Kantian ethics :-
a) Concept of good will
b) Imperatives Hypothetical and categorical
c) Kant’s doctrine of categorical imperatives
d) Duty for duties sake

4) Ethical Concepts :-
a) Conduct and character
b) Nature and classification of virtues ; cardinal and civic virtues
c) Theories of punishment: deterrent, Retributive and reformative
d) Nature and arguments for and against capital punishment

5) Meta Ethics :-
a) Nature and analysis of moral Judgement
b) Naturalistic fallacy
c) Emotivism
PHI G-121 Dimensions of Ethics

1) Indian Ethics
a) Theory of purusarthas : Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha
b) Law of Karma
c) Doctrine of Niskamakarmayoga
d) Concept of Svadharma

2) Social Ethics
a) Social institutions : Family, Work, Education, Religion, State, Friendship and civic community.
b) The concept of right and duty, Natural rights and moral rights
c) Fundamental Human rights : Right to live, freedom, property, education and contract, need for right to privacy, Right to work and Right to information.
d) Social Evils – Divorce, Drug-addiction, Dowary, Alcoholism, Commission of suicide, unemployment, Terrorism, Aids and female foeticide

3) Applied Ethics (With special reference to environmental ethics) : -
a) Man and nature relationship
b) Ecological problems : Population, conservation and preservation
c) Ecological pollution: Air, Water and Sound
d) Environmental Policy and Legislation

4) Medical Ethics :-
a) Euthanasia
b) Abortion
c) Female Foeticide
d) Doctor – Patient relationship
e) Drug Addiction
f) Alcoholism

5) Feminist Ethics :-
a) The role of gender in society
b) Feminist Theory of Knowledge
c) Feminism and History
d) Feminism and the nature of value judgment
General Paper — III Mordern Philosophical Thought (PHI — G )

Sem-V: Modern Western Thought

Topic I Karl Marx
1.1 The Refutation of Hegel’s Idealism by Marx
1.2 The Dialectical Method of Marx
1.3 Nature and form of materialism
1.4 The Theory of Class-Conflict and its evaluation
1.5 Alienation in Capitalist Society
1.6 Classless and Stateless Society

Topic 2 Bertrand Russell
2.1 The Role of Science on Human Knowledge
2.2 Science and knowledge
2.3 Conflict between Religion and Science
2.4 Education for world peace and Happiness
2.5 Freedom versus Authority

Topic III Jean Paul Sartre
3.1 The Nature of Existentialism
3.2 The Concept of Nothingness
3.3 The Concept of Self
3.4 The Nature of Human Freedom
3.5 The Concept of Being
3.6 Sarture‘s Philosophy as Humanism
Special Paper

Modern Western Thinkers

1. Descartes :-
• Method of Doubt.
• Clear and Distinct Ideas.
• Nature of self — Cogito ergo sum.
• Proof for the existence of God.
• Mind-Body relation — Interactionism.

2. Spinoza
• Geometrical Method
• Substance, Attributes, Modes
• Notion of God.
• Body-Mind relation — Parallelism

3. Leibnilz :-
• Doctrine of Monads
• Pre-established Harmony
• Concept of God

4. Locke :-
• Empiricism
• Theory of Knowledge
• Refutation of Innate Ideas

Metaphysics and Existentialism

  1. Nature of Metaphysical theories and their possibility, Kant’s view, Hume’s Criticism.

  2. Concept of change and Causality — Hume’s account of Causality — Kant’s reply to it, Determinism, freedom and causality

  3. Nyaya, Samkhya and Buddhist theories of Causation, Karma theory and Causality

  4. Nature of External and Internal world — Realism, Idealism and Phenomenolism, Behaviourism and Mind-Brain Identity theory.

Sem VI: Modern Indian Thought

Topic IV : Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
4.1 The notion of Truth
4.2 Gandhi’s Views on non-violence
4.3 Gandhi’s concept of Satyagraha
4.4 Satyagraha as a means of social chamge
4.5 Gandhi’s Doctrine of Sarvodaya.
Gandhi’s critique of modern civilization

Topic V : Dr. Bhimarao Ramaji Ambedkar
5.1 Critique of Hindu Religion
5.2 Critique of Hindu Social and Value System
5.3 Dr. Ambedkar‘s views on Buddhism.
5.4 Approach to conversation to Buddhism
5.5 Distinction between Dharma and Dhamma

Topic VI : Swami Vivekanand
6.1 Universal religion
6.2 Practical Vedanta
6.3 Karmayoga
6.4 Concept of Education
6.5 Swamijis view on Hindu Religion.
Modern Western Thinl‹ers 2

1. Berkeley :-
• Subjective Idealism
• Esse est Percipii
• Concept of God

2. Hume :-
• Empirical theory of knowledge
• Notion of causality
• Theory of knowledge
• Scepticism.

3. Kant :
• Critical Method
• Criticism of Rationalism and Empiricism
• Distinction between apriori and aposteriori
• Distincion between Analytic and Synthetic Propositions
• Categories of understanding
• Phenomenon and Noumena

1. Nature of Existentialism and their methods — Salient features, Phenomenology, Theistic and Atheistic form of existentialism— place of existentialism in Contemporary Philosophical thought

2. Main concepts of existentialistic Philosophy — Human existence, Being and Nothingness, Freedom, Choice and Commitment, Subjectivity (Heidegger) Sein and Dasein (Heidegger)

3. Heidegger; Marcel and Sartre — General nature of their theories

4. Sartre’s Concept of ensoi and pour-Soi-Dread alienation and absurdity
UNIT-I Genetics

1. Mendel’s law
1. Law of dominance
2. Law of segregation
3. Law of independent assortment
2. Incomplete dominance
3. Test cross, back cross
4. Concept of multiple alleles
1. Characters, symbolism eg.ABO types
5. Lethal gene

UNIT-II Chromosomes and structural organization of prokaryotic & eukaryotic DNA
6. Morphology, structure and types of chromosome
7. Chromosome number and variation in chromosome number
8. Structural organization of prokaryotic & eukaryotic DNA
9. Central dogma

UNIT-III DNA replication and transcription in bacteria
10. DNA replication in E coli
1. Replication origin, unwinding of the strand, Template DNA, RNA primer, polymerization, replication fork, leading strand, lagging strand, okazaki fragment,
11. Transcription components
1. Template, activated precursors, divalent metal ions, RNA polymerase, sigma factor
2. Transcription process- initiation, elongation, termination
12. Fine structure of gene
1. Cistron, muton, recon, intron, promotor, repressor, exon, regulator, operator etc
13. Gene regulation
1. Operon concept, lac operon

UNIT-IV Prokaryotic Translation and Mutations
14. Activation and transfer of amino acids to tRNA
15. Translation- initiation, elongation, termination
16. Post translational modification in eukaryotics
17. Mutations- definition
18. Gene mutations
1. Base pair substitutions- transition, transversion and inversion
2. Frameshift mutations- deletion and insertion
3. Missense mutation, nonsense mutations
4. Mutations in termination codons
5. Silent mutations
19. Mutagens: definition
1. Chemical- base analogues, agents modifying purines and pyrimidines
2. Physical- radiations

BC-352 Plant Biochemistry

Unit-I Photosynthesis
1. Definition of photosynthesis
2. Ultra structure of chloroplast
3. Chemistry of photosynthetic pigments: Chlorophyll, phycobilins and carotenoids
4. Mechanism of Photosynthesis
a. Photosystem I and II
b. Light (Hill) reaction: Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation
c. Dark reaction: C3 and C4 pathways
d. Kranz anatomy
e. Comparison between C3 and C4 pathways
f. Significance of photosynthesis,
g. Factors affecting photosynthesis- external and internal,

Unit-II Respiration
5. Photorespiration:
a. Definition
b. Metabolism of Photorespiration
c. Significance of photorespiration
d. Differences between dark respiration and photorespiration
6. Respiration:
a. Definition and types of respiration
b. Differences between respiration and photosynthesis
c. Differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
d. Factors affecting respiration- external and internal
7. Electron transport chain:
a. Components of ETC
b. Oxidative phosphorylation: Mechanism- chemical coupling hypothesis, conformational coupling hypothesis, chemi-osmotic coupling hypothesis
c. Redox potential and sites of ATP synthesis
d. Differences between oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation

Unit-III Phytohormones
8. Definition and types of phytohormones
9. Mechanism of action, physiological effect and applications of-
a. Auxins
b. Cytokinins
c. Gibberellins
d. Abscisic acid
e. Ethylene
10. Seed dormancy and seed germination

Unit-IV Secondary Metabolites
11. Introduction and biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites
12. Classification-
a. Isoprenoid /terpenoids: classification, chemistry, distribution and role of isoprenoids
b. Nitrogen containing secondary plant products: Classification
i. Alkaloids: chemistry distribution classification and physiological role
ii. Cynogenic gycosides and glucosionolates: chemistry and functions
iii. Non-protein amino acids: chemistry and functions
c. Plant phenolics: chemistry, biological functions, classification
i. Chemistry and functions of lignin, flavonoids and tannins
BC-353 Clinical Biochemistry-I

Unit-I Disorders related to Carbohydrate metabolism
1. Regulation of blood glucose level
i. supply of glucose to the blood and removal glucose from blood
ii. Post absorptive state
iii. Postprandial state
iv. Fundamental regulatory mechanism
v. Hormonal influence on carbohydrate metabolism
2. Blood sugar level and its clinical significance
i. Normal values of blood glucose level
ii. Causes of hyperglycemia and hypoglycaemia
3. Glycosuria: mechanism, types-hyperglycemic glycosuria and renal glycosuria and their subtypes
4. Diabetes Mellitus: Definition, stages of diabetes mellitus, clinical types and causes, metabolic changes and complications, effect of insulin on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism

Unit-II Hemoglobinopathies
5. Structure and functions of hemoglobin
6. Abnormal hemoglobins: types based on mutation in structural gene and mutation in regulator gene
i. Sickle cell anaemia
ii. Methemoglobinemia-Hb-M, Hb-Sabine
iii. High O2-affinity hemoglobins- Hb-Chesapeake, Hb-Rainier
iv. Hemoglobin interfere in mRNA formation- Hb-Constant spring
v. Thalassaemias

Unit-III Disorders related to Protein metabolism
7. Ammonia:
i. Formation of ammonia
ii. Normal blood ammonia level
iii. Hyperammonaemia
iv. Ammonia intoxication
v. Metabolic fate of ammonia
8. Urea:
i. Normal level
ii. Increased level- pre-renal, renal and post-renal
iii. Decreased level
iv. Inherited disorders associated with urea cycle
1. Hyperammonaemia type-I and II
2. Citrullinaemia
3. Argininosuccinic aciduria
4. Hyperargininaemia

9. Creatine:
i. Occurrence and distribution
ii. Biosynthesis of creatine and creatinine
iii. Regulation of creatine synthesis
iv. Creatinuria
v. Role of creatine in muscles
10. Uric acid:
i. Formation common pathway and at different sites
ii. Miscible pool, turn over, distribution, dietary effects, effect of hormones, excretion of uric acid

Unit-IV Disorders related to Lipid metabolism
11. Ketosis:
i. Definition, causes, site of formation and fate
ii. Ketogenesis
iii. Ketolysis
iv. Factors determining magnitude of ketogenesis
v. Antiketogenic mechanism
vi. Ketogenic/Antiketogenic ratio in diet
12. Lipoproteins:
i. Definition and classification based on per-hydrated density, electrophoretic mobility and apo-lipoproteins
ii. Functions of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL
iii. Associated clinical disorders- hyperlipoproteinaemias and hypolipoproteinaemias
iv. Hyperlipoproteinaemias: Type I to type V, and Wolman’s disease
v. Hypolipoproteinaemias: Abeta lipoproteinaemia, Familial α-lipoprotein deficiency
vi. Plasma lipoproteins and atherosclerosis
13. Fatty liver:
i. Introduction and factors regulating fat content of liver
ii. Types of fatty liver- type 1 to 5
iii. Agents responsible for fatty liver formation and their mechanism
BC-354 Metabolism

Unit-I Carbohydrate metabolism
1. Glycolysis: steps; balance sheet; bioenergetics; fate of pyruvate
2. Tricarboxylic acid cycle: oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl Co-A; steps of TCA cycle; balance sheet; bioenergetics
3. Glyoxylate cycle
4. HMP pathway: functions of HMP pathway; steps
5. Glycogenolysis: steps of conversion of glycogen to glucose under the influence of epinephrine and glucagon
6. Gluconeogenesis: from pyruvate and amino acids
7. Glycogen biosynthesis

Unit-II Protein metabolism
8. Proteolysis: digestion of proteins; enzymes involved in digestion of protein
9. Flow sheet of amino acid oxidation: pathways leading to acetyl Co-A: pathways to pyruvate, to acetoacetyl Co-A and to direct acetyl Co-A; α-ketoglutarate pathway; succinate pathway; fumarate pathway; oxaloacetate pathway
10. Transamination: Transamination of L-aspartate, L-alanine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine; mechanism of the reaction
11. Oxidative deamination: general reaction; oxidative deamination of glutamate
12. Transmethylation: mechanism of transmethylation involving methionine as methyl group donor
13. Decarboxylation: general reaction; decarboxylation of histidine, tryptophan and arginine
14. Urea cycle

Unit-III Lipid metabolism
15. Activation of fatty acids and transportation into mitochondria
16. β-oxidation of saturated even carbon fatty acids: steps, balance sheet, bioenergetics
17. β-oxidation of saturated odd carbon fatty acids: steps, fate of propionyl Co-A
18. β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids: fatty acids having one and two double bonds
19. Biosynthesis of fatty acids: formation of malonyl Co-A; enzymes and functions of fatty acid synthetase complex; steps of fatty acid biosynthesis
20. Elongation of saturated fatty acid and desaturation of fatty acids

Unit-IV Nucleotides metabolism
21. Biosynthesis of purine ribonucleotides: steps of AMP and GMP biosynthesis
22. Regulation of purine nucleotide biosynthesis
23. Biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotide: steps of UMP and CMP biosynthesis
24. Regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis
25. Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides: conversion of ribose sugar to 2’deoxyribose sugar
26. Formation of deoxythymidylic acid: steps
27. Regulation of deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis
28. Degradation of purines
29. Salvage of purines
30. Purine nucleotide cycle
31. Pyrimidine degradation
BC-355 Biophysical Chemistry

Unit-I Acids and Bases
1. Properties of water in relation to life process
i. Expansion on freezing
ii. Uniquely high surface tension
iii. Uniquely high heat capacity
iv. High solvent power
2. Concept of Acid and Base
i. Arrhenius theory
ii. Lewis acid and base
iii. Lowry-Bronsted Theory
3. Acid-Base equilibria in water
i. Law of Mass Action
ii. Ionisation of water
iii. Equilibrium constant and Ionisation constant of water
iv. Concept of pH
4. Buffers- Concept and definition
i. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
5. Biological buffer systems
i. Phosphate buffer system
ii. Bicarbonate buffer system

Unit-II Diffusion, Osmosis and Colloidal phenomena
6. Diffusion- definition and types
i. Fick’s laws of diffusion- first and second
ii. Methods of determination of diffusion coefficient
iii. Significance of diffusion coefficient
7. Osmosis- definition
i. Osmotic pressure- definition and its measurement
ii. Tonicity- types
iii. Significance of osmosis in biology
8. Colloids- concept
i. Classification of colloids- lyophilic and lyophobic colloids
ii. Brownian movement
iii. Tyndall effect
iv. Donnan membrane equilibrium

Unit-III Viscosity, Surface tension and Adsorption
9. Viscosity- concept
i. Factors affecting viscosity
ii. Measurement of viscosity
1. Capillary flow
2. Rotation of a cylinder immersed in solution
3. Rate of fall of a ball through solution
iii. Applications of viscometry
iv. Significance of viscosity in biological systems
10. Surface tension- concept
i. Factors affecting surface tension
ii. Measurement of surface tension
11. Adsorption- concept
i. Kinds of adsorption interactions
ii. Characteristics of adsorption
iii. Importance of adsorption phenomena