I

Introduction to

Atmosphere

A. Definitions of Atmosphere

B. Meaning and Definition of Climate & Weather

C.  Composition of Atmosphere

i.    Gases,

ii.   Water Vapor iii.  Dust Particles)

D. Structure of Atmosphere

I.  On the basis of Chemical Composition:

i. Homosphere ii. Hetrosphere

II  On the basis of physical properties:

i. Troposphere       

ii. Stratosphere

iii. Thermosphere

iv. Mesosphere      a. Ionosphere

b. Exosphere

II

Insolation

& Temperature

A. Meaning & Definition of Insolation, Solar

Constant and Aledo of the Earth

B. Distribution of Isolation- Factors

Affecting  the Distribution of Insolation

C.  Distribution of Temperature.

  I.   Vertical Distribution

II.  Horizontal Distribution

III

Atmospheric

Pressure

& Winds

A. Atmospheric Pressure

i.  Formation of Pressure Belts

ii. Shifting of Pressure Belts and their

  Effect

B. Winds

I.   Factors Affecting on Winds

a.  Pressure Gradient

b.  Coriolis Force

c.  Frictional Force

        II. Classification of Winds

a.  Planetary Winds- Definition &Types

b.  Periodical Winds: land & Sea Breezes)

c.   Monsoon Winds – Concept & Types

 

IV

Humidity

&Applications of Climatology

A. Definition & Types of Humidity

  i. Absolute 

 ii. Specific and

iii. Relative Humidity

 

B.  Forms of Condensation:

Fog, Dew, Frost ,Clouds& Precipitation

C. Forms of Precipitation:

(Rain, Drizzle, Snow, Sleet.)

D. Types of Rainfall

i.    Convectional

ii.   Orographic / Relief

iii.  Cyclonic  or Frontal

E. Applications of Climatology in the field of –

Agriculture , Settlement, Health, Trade &  Transport