Botany 

Plant  Ecology

Syllabus

Unit 1: Introduction              (2 L) 

1.1 Definition and historical background  

1.2 Scope & importance    

Unit 2: Ecological factors 

  2.1. Abiotic factors (Humidity, light & temperature)    (8 L) 

  2.2. Biotic factors (Symbiosis, epiphytes & parasitism) 

  2.3. Edaphic factors (Soil components, soil formation and soil profile) 

2.4 Shelford law of tolerance 

2.5 Adaptation of hydrophytes (Hydrilla&Eichhornia) and Xerophytes  

       (Nerium&Opuntia) 

Unit 3: Plant communities             (5 L) 

3.1 Characteristics of community 

              3.2 Species diversity  

              3.3 Growth form, Structure & dominance. 

              3.4 Ecological Succession: Hydrosere andXerosere 

Unit 4: Ecosystem                (10L) 

4.1 Introduction & definition  

4.2 Components of ecosystem 

4.3 Types of ecosystem  

a) Pond ecosystem 

 b) Grassland ecosystem 

4.4 Food chain and food webs. 

4.4 Ecologicalpyramids production and productivity. 

4.5 Biogeochemical cycle: Carbon and  Nitrogen 

Unit 5: Phytogeography              (5 L) 

5.1 Basic Principles of Phytogeography 

5.2Botanical regions of Inida 

5.2 Vegetational types in Maharashtra 

5.3Endemism: Causes and Types